New Type Idiom

The newtype idiom gives compile time guarantees that the right type of value is supplied to a program.

For example, an age verification function that checks age in years, must be given a value of type Years.

struct Years(i64);

struct Days(i64);

impl Years {
    pub fn to_days(&self) -> Days {
        Days(self.0 * 365)
    }
}


impl Days {
    /// truncates partial years
    pub fn to_years(&self) -> Years {
        Years(self.0 / 365)
    }
}

fn old_enough(age: &Years) -> bool {
    age.0 >= 18
}

fn main() {
    let age = Years(5);
    let age_days = age.to_days();
    println!("Old enough {}", old_enough(&age));
    println!("Old enough {}", old_enough(&age_days.to_years()));
    // println!("Old enough {}", old_enough(&age_days));
}

Uncomment the last print statement to observe that the type supplied must be Years.

To obtain the newtype's value as the base type, you may use the tuple or destructuring syntax like so:

struct Years(i64);

fn main() {
    let years = Years(42);
    let years_as_primitive_1: i64 = years.0; // Tuple
    let Years(years_as_primitive_2) = years; // Destructuring
}

参照

structs